All three of these three great minds knew how to use a little bit of sleep to inspire great ideas.
Einstein was in the discoverer of indeterminism and ontological chancethough he was reluctant to fully accept chance in his final theory.
Without chance and new information, there can be no "free creations of the human mind," which Einstein correctly recognized as the fundamental source of new scientific theories.
He discovered the existence of indeterministic chance as a "weakness" in quantum theory over a decade before Heisenberg published his indeterminacy principle. He deplored his discoveries. Since the validity of any theory rests on its experimental confirmation, as Einstein knew very well, we can say that the extraordinary confirmation of quantum mechanics, especially its probabilistic nature, makes it the best supported theory in the history of science, but nevertheless it is a statistical theory.
Few of us are immune to the power of beliefs that prevent the acceptance of scientifically established facts.
As exceptional a scientist as Einstein was, he was no exception there. Randomness was not his only concern, maybe not even his main concern, as we shall see. The became more extreme in his later years, when he wrote One can give good reasons why reality cannot at all be represented by a continuous field.
From the quantum phenomena it appears to follow with certainty that a finite system of finite energy can be completely described by a finite set of numbers quantum numbers.
This does not seem to be in accordance with a continuum theory, and must lead to an attempt to find a purely algebraic theory for the description of reality.
But nobody knows how to obtain the basis of such a theory. The Meaning of Relativity,pp. The differential equations that describe classical physics in space and time assume there are an infinite number of infinitesimal points along any finite line segment.
But Einstein saw that any finite volume even the whole observable universe can contain only a finite number of discrete quanta of matter or energy. Quantum mechanics can thus be described with simpler difference equations in what Einstein described as an "algebraic" theory.
Ludwig Boltzmann had shown that he could derive his entropy law assuming that space can be described as "coarse grained" into small enough discrete volumes, though still large enough to contain many particles.
Quite apart from his great deterministic and continuous theories of special and general relativity, Einstein was one of the most important creators both discoverer and inventor of the indeterministic and discrete theory of quantum mechanics.
In his paper on the light-quantum hypothesis and photoelectric effect, he quantized the radiation field, where Max Planck had only quantized energy in his virtual oscillators.
Einstein was first to see that electromagnetic radiation is particulate. And in his very next paper he proved the existence of atoms. Einstein thus saw that both the material and the energetic universe have discrete and discontinuous properties!
His paper on Brownian motion predicted sizes and motions for atoms that were confirmed just a few years later. And although he waited ten years to do so, Einstein stated unequivocally that quantum processes are fundamentally indeterministica matter of reality of radiation quanta, although I still stand quite alone in this conviction.
Despite his foundational work quantizing radiation, Einstein rarely gets any credit for his contributions to quantum mechanics.
Kramers and John Slater was the last defense of continuous, as opposed to discrete, radiation. The Bohr-Kramers-Slater theory claimed that energy was not conserved in each matter-radiation interaction, but only statistically.
Just because Einstein did not regard any of these discoveries as part of a fundamental "local" reality that Einstein wanted is no reason to deny him credit for them all.Albert Einstein. March 14, - April 18, Physicist and Mathematician Nobel Laureate for Physics "There are only two ways to live your life.
More Quotes #2. There are two ways of spreading light -- to be the candle or the mirror that reflects itEdith Wharton "How can you have charisma?
Albert Einstein has been the subject of, or inspiration for, many works of popular culture.. On Einstein's 72nd birthday on March 14, , United Press photographer Arthur Sasse was trying to persuade him to smile for the camera, but having smiled for photographers many times that day, Einstein stuck out his tongue instead.
This photograph became one of the most popular ever taken of Einstein. Search my very large collection of inspirational quotes and sayings.
Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire, on 14 March His parents were Hermann Einstein, a salesman and engineer, and Pauline attheheels.com , the family moved to Munich, where Einstein's father and his uncle Jakob founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J.
Einstein & Cie, a company that manufactured electrical equipment based on direct current. Albert Einstein Old Grove Rd. Nassau Point Peconic, Long Island August 2nd F.D. Roosevelt President of the United States White House Washington, D.C.
Sir: Some recent work by attheheels.com and L. Szilard, which has been com- municated to me in manuscript, leads me to expect that the element uran- ium may be turned into a new and important source of energy in the im- mediate future.