Effect of salt on blood pressure[ edit ] Automated blood pressure device The human body has evolved to balance salt intake with need through means such as the renin—angiotensin system. In humans, salt has important biological functions. Relevant to risk of cardiovascular disease, salt is highly involved with the maintenance of body fluid volume, including osmotic balance in the blood, extracellular and intracellular fluids, and resting membrane potential.
Health versus disease Before human disease can be discussed, the meanings of the terms health, physical fitness, illness, and disease must be considered.
Health could be defined theoretically in terms of certain measured values; for example, a person having normal body temperature, pulse and breathing rates, blood pressureheight, weight, acuity of vision, sensitivity of hearing, and other normal measurable characteristics might be termed healthy.
But what does normal mean, and how is it established?
It is well known that if the temperatures are taken of a large number of active, presumably healthy, individuals the temperatures will all come close to The great preponderance of these values will fall between Thus, health could in part be defined as having a temperature within this narrow range.
Similarly, a normal range can be established for pulse, blood pressure, and height. In some healthy individuals, however, the body temperature may range below These low and high temperatures fall outside the limits defined above as normal and are instances of biological variability. Biological criteria of normality are based on statistical concepts.
Body height may be used as an example. If the heights of every individual in a large sample were plotted on a graph, the many points would fall on a bell-shaped curve. At one end of the curve would be the very short people, and at the other extreme the few very tall people.
The majority of the points of the sample population would fall on the dome of the bell-shaped curve. At the peak of the dome would be those individuals whose height approaches the average of all the heights. Scientists use curves in determining what they call normal criteria.
By accepted statistical criteria, 95 percent of the population measured would be included in the normal range—that is, Looked at in another way, in any given normal biological distribution 5 percent will be considered outside the normal range.
Thus the 7-foot cm basketball player would be considered abnormally tall, but that which is abnormal must be distinguished from that which represents disease.
The basketball player might be abnormally tall but still have excellent health. Thus, in any statistical analysis of health, the possibility of biological variation must be recognized.
A better example than height of how problems can arise with biological variability is heart size. If the heart is subjected to a greater than normal burden over a long period, it can respond by growing larger the process is known as hypertrophy. This occurs in certain forms of heart diseaseespecially in those involving long-standing high blood pressure or structural defects of the heart valves.
A large heart, therefore, may be a sign of disease. On the other hand, it is not uncommon for athletes to have large hearts. Continuous strenuous exercise requires a greater output of blood to the tissues, and the heart adapts to this demand by becoming larger. In some cases the decision as to whether an abnormally large heart represents evidence of disease or is simply a biological variant may tax the diagnostic abilities of the physician.
The effects of age introduce yet another difficulty in the attempt to define health in theoretical measured norms.The LDL-C differences are either mean or median depending on what was presented for each trial. Major vascular events include cardiovascular death, acute myocardial infarction or other acute coronary syndrome, coronary revascularization, and stroke (eTables .
Nov 23, · Nov. 8, — Researchers have developed a way to grow human heart tissue that can serve as a model for the upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria.
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an analysis of cages. Human cardiovascular system: Human cardiovascular system, organ system that conveys blood through vessels to and from all parts of the body, carrying nutrients and oxygen to tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes.
It is a closed tubular system in which the blood is propelled by a muscular heart. For a discussion of diseases. Abstract. Alterations of endothelial cells and the vasculature play a central role in the pathogenesis of a broad spectrum of the most dreadful of human diseases, as endothelial cells have the key function of participating in the maintenance of patent and functional capillaries.
The endothelium is directly involved in peripheral vascular disease, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, insulin.