Continuation, Continuation-In-Part CIPand Divisional applications are three different kinds of applications that fall under the category of "stemming from a parent application. These three application types enable the inventor to "modify" different aspects of the original or "parent" application by submitting a new application that claims benefit of the parent, as well as its filing date. It is important to note that none of these continuation-type applications may be applied to a provisional application, as the only application that may claim the benefit of a provisional application is the subsequent non-provisional application.
X terminal An X terminal is a thin client that only runs an X server.
This architecture became popular for building inexpensive terminal parks for many users to simultaneously use the same large computer server to execute application programs as clients of each user's X terminal.
This use is very much aligned with the original intention of the MIT project. X terminals explore the network the local broadcast domain using the X Display Manager Control Protocol to generate a list of available hosts that are allowed as clients.
One of the client hosts should run an X display manager. A limitation of X terminals and most thin clients is that they are not capable of any input or output other than the keyboard, mouse, and display. All relevant data is assumed to exist solely on the remote server, and the X terminal user has no methods available to save or load data from a local peripheral device.
Dedicated hardware X terminals have fallen out of use; a PC or modern thin client with Client server application thesis X server typically provides the same functionality at the same, or lower, cost. Limitations and criticism[ edit ] This article's Criticism or Controversy section may compromise the article's neutral point of view of the subject.
Please integrate the section's contents into the article as a whole, or rewrite the material. User interface issues[ edit ] The lack of design guidelines in X has resulted in several vastly different interfaces, and in applications that have not always worked well together.
Further standards efforts such as Motif and CDE did not alleviate problems. This has frustrated users and programmers. Various desktop environments may thus offer their own usually mutually incompatible facilities. Computer accessibility related issues[ edit ] Systems built upon X may have accessibility issues that make utilization of a computer difficult for disabled users, including right clickdouble clickmiddle clickmouse-overand focus stealing.
Some X11 clients deal with accessibility issues better than others, so persons with accessibility problems are not locked out of using X However, there is no accessibility standard or accessibility guidelines for X Within the X11 standards process there is no working group on accessibility, however, accessibility needs are being addressed by software projects to provide these features on top of X.
Network[ edit ] Example of tunnelling an X11 application over SSH An X client cannot generally be detached from one server and reattached to another unless its code specifically provides for it emacs is one of the few common programs with this ability.
As such, moving an entire session from one X server to another is generally not possible. However, approaches like Virtual Network Computing VNCNX and Xpra allow a virtual session to be reached from different X servers in a manner similar to GNU Screen in relation to terminalsand other applications and toolkits provide related facilities.
This ability allows the user interface mouse, keyboard, monitor of a running application to be switched from one location to another without stopping and restarting the application.
Network traffic between an X server and remote X clients is not encrypted by default. An attacker with a packet sniffer can intercept it, making it possible to view anything displayed to or sent from the user's screen.
Like all thin clientswhen using X across a network, bandwidth limitations can impede the use of bitmap -intensive applications that require rapidly updating large portions of the screen with low latency, such as 3D animation or photo editing.
In contrast, modern versions of X generally have extensions such as MESA allowing local display of a local program's graphics to be optimized to bypass the network model and directly control the video card, for use of full-screen video, rendered 3D applications, and other such applications.
Client—server separation[ edit ] X's design requires the clients and server to operate separately, and device independence and the separation of client and server incur overhead.
Most of the overhead comes from network round-trip delay time between client and server latency rather than from the protocol itself: Modern X implementations use Unix domain sockets for efficient connections on the same host.
It is also necessary to provide fallback paths in order to stay compatible with older implementations, and in order to communicate with non-local X servers.
Competitors[ edit ] Some people have attempted writing alternatives to and replacements for X. Mike Paquetteone of the authors of Quartz, explained that if Apple had added support for all the features it wanted to include into X11, it would not bear much resemblance to X11 nor be compatible with other servers anyway.
Wayland is being developed by several X.
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