Description of the content[ edit ] The Physics is composed of eight books, which are further divided into chapters. This system is of ancient origin, now obscure.
Metaphysics substance, cause, form, potentiality Nicomachean Ethics soul, happiness, virtue, friendship Eudemain Ethics Politics best states, utopias, constitutions, revolutions Rhetoric elements of forensic and political debate Poetics tragedy, epic poetry 3.
From their perspective, logic and reasoning was the chief preparatory instrument of scientific investigation. Aristotle himself, however, uses the term "logic" as equivalent to verbal reasoning. They seem to be arranged according to the order of the questions we would ask in gaining knowledge of an object.
For example, we ask, first, what a thing is, then how great it is, next of what kind it is. Substance is always regarded as the most important of these.
Substances are further divided into first and second: Notions when isolated do not in themselves express either truth or falsehood: The elements of such a proposition are the noun substantive and the verb.
The combination of words gives rise to rational speech and thought, conveys a meaning both in its parts and as a whole. The truth or falsity of propositions is determined by their agreement or disagreement with the facts they represent.
Thus propositions are either affirmative or negative, each of which again may be either universal or particular or undesignated.
A definition, for Aristotle is a statement of the essential character of a subject, and involves both the genus and the difference. To get at a true definition we must find out those qualities within the genus which taken separately are wider than the subject to be defined, but taken together are precisely equal to it.
For example, "prime," "odd," and "number" are each wider than "triplet" that is, a collection of any three items, such as three rocks ; but taken together they are just equal to it. The genus definition must be formed so that no species is left out.
Having determined the genus and species, we must next find the points of similarity in the species separately and then consider the common characteristics of different species.
Definitions may be imperfect by 1 being obscure, 2 by being too wide, or 3 by not stating the essential and fundamental attributes. Obscurity may arise from the use of equivocal expressions, of metaphorical phrases, or of eccentric words.
The heart of Aristotle's logic is the syllogism, the classic example of which is as follows: All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.
The syllogistic form of logical argumentation dominated logic for 2, years until the rise of modern propositional and predicate logic thanks to Frege, Russell, and others. Aristotle begins by sketching the history of philosophy.
For Aristotle, philosophy arose historically after basic necessities were secured. It grew out of a feeling of curiosity and wonder, to which religious myth gave only provisional satisfaction. The earliest speculators i. Thales, Anaximenes, Anaximander were philosophers of nature. The Pythagoreans succeeded these with mathematical abstractions.
The level of pure thought was reached partly in the Eleatic philosophers such as Parmenides and Anaxagoras, but more completely in the work of Socrates. Socrates' contribution was the expression of general conceptions in the form of definitions, which he arrived at by induction and analogy.
For Aristotle, the subject of metaphysics deals with the first principles of scientific knowledge and the ultimate conditions of all existence. More specifically, it deals with existence in its most fundamental state i. This can be contrasted with mathematics which deals with existence in terms of lines or angles, and not existence as it is in itself.
In its universal character, metaphysics superficially resembles dialectics and sophistry.
However, it differs from dialectics which is tentative, and it differs from sophistry which is a pretence of knowledge without the reality.
The axioms of science fall under the consideration of the metaphysician insofar as they are properties ofall existence. Aristotle argues that there are a handful of universal truths.
Against the followers of Heraclitus and Protagoras, Aristotle defends both the laws of contradiction, and that of excluded middle. He does this by showing that their denial is suicidal. Carried out to its logical consequences, the denial of these laws would lead to the sameness of all facts and all assertions.
It would also result in an indifference in conduct. Plato tried to solve the same question by positing a universal and invariable element of knowledge and existence -- the forms -- as the only real permanent besides the changing phenomena of the senses.
Aristotle attacks Plato's theory of the forms on three different grounds. Forms are not causes of movement and alteration in the physical objects of sensation.
However, the forms place knowledge outside of particular things.Aristotle (— B.C.E.) Aristotle is a towering figure in ancient Greek philosophy, making contributions to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and attheheels.com was a student of Plato who in turn studied under Socrates.
He was more empirically-minded than Plato or Socrates and is famous for rejecting Plato's theory of forms. Explain Aristotle’s understanding of the Prime Mover (25 marks) In Aristotle’s book the Metaphysics, he calls the cause of all movement the Prime Mover (P.M).
The Prime Mover to Aristotle is the first of all substances, the necessary first sources of movement which itself is unmoved. a) Explain Aristotle’s understanding of the four causes. Unlike his teacher, Plato, Aristotle believed that the world could be explained by physical observation.
This approach of using the five senses, cataloguing and categorising, is . 1. Aristotle’s Life. Born in B.C.E. in the Macedonian region of northeastern Greece in the small city of Stagira (whence the moniker ‘the Stagirite’), Aristotle was sent to Athens at about the age of seventeen to study in Plato’s Academy, then a pre-eminent place of learning in the Greek world.
Aristotle's Physics presents four types of cause: formal, material, final and efficient. Peter looks at all four, and asks whether evolutionary theory undermines final causes in nature. ATOMS (A short history of the knowledge of the atom) Compiled by Jim Walker.
Originated: Sept. Latest revision: Nov. atom n. A unit of matter, the smallest unit of an element, consisting of a dense, central, positively charged nucleus surrounded by a system of electrons, equal in number to the number of nuclear protons, the entire structure having an approximate diameter of