Chapter Two Responding to Literary Experiencesc. Chapter Sixteen Literary Criticism: Describe your personal relationship to literature and to reading. Begin by considering the meaning ofliterature.
In narratology, performativity denotes modes of presenting or evoking action. Here the audience experiences the actors and the action directly, i. Performance can take place in the real world as in a wedding ceremony or a court trial or it can depict fictional events as in a theater performance.
Verbal or visual scripts can prepare the performance in playtexts and stage directions, film scripts and choreographic sketches. These may also detail gestures, facial expressions and voice.
In a wider sense, the term performativity can also be applied to non-corporeal presentations, e. Here performativity refers to the imitation or illusion of a performance. In systematic terms, actions can be conveyed on two different levels of the presentational process.
They can be located, first, on the level of histoire the story that is presented. When the performativity of the act of narration is considered in a wider pragmatic and cultural context, aspects of the empirical author e.
Explication Performativity and performance are interdisciplinary concepts that have emerged in linguistics and the philosophy of language, in performance, theater and literary studies, as well as in ethnology, sociology and cultural studies Loxley Therefore, this article will aim above all to provide a systematic account of how the concept of performativity currently pertains to narratology.
Performativity I refers to the performance of a narrative, i. These presentations of narratives evoke a performance in the mind of the reader or spectator. In narrative, performativity can be located on two levels: The spectator of the performance perceives the unfolding of a story in a scenic transmission, bodily presented by one or more actors.
In the strictest sense, this denotes direct speech only, as in dramatic writing, dialogue quoted verbatim, etc.
In the case of performativity I. Here the performance consists in the presentation of a story by a narrator or presenter, e. His or her voice, body or actions rather than those of individually embodied persons or characters form the core of the performance, which allows for different degrees of impersonation.
The performativity of the illusion of dramatic presentation in written narrative corresponds to or appears to be modeled on scenic performances. Likewise the performativity of the act of presentation or narration, especially in feigned orality or skaz narration, corresponds to or appears to be modeled on performances by an embodied storyteller.
Direct presentation on the story level II. Analogously, mediation of the act of narration on the level of the narration II. In the case of both performativity I. This story tells of changes in the situation, attitude or behavior of the narrator. On this level, the act of narration is thematized in a self-reflexive manner.
Performative in this sense is often used synonymously with self-conscious and reflexive or with metanarrative and metafictional. The two basic levels of performativity can also be re-conceptualized in speech act terminology that describes utterances as a mode of action.
In the context of narratology, the performativity of speech acts is relevant on two levels. First, speech acts directly precipitate action on the story-level promises, threats, wooing, etcwhether in court-rooms or dramatic dialogue Pfister  Second, the narrator deploys speech acts to identify and report, generalize and promise, etc.
Pratt ; Todorov  ; in this perspective, a novel, too, is a speech act.
Since speech act theory remains language-based, it applies only to verbal narratives. Yet other media, e. Though used primarily to denote the co-presence and live interaction between the presenter s of a narrative and the audience, the notion of performance is sometimes deployed in a looser sense.
With a view to media in which the narrative is encountered as already given and complete, as in a novel, film or painting, the term performance is also used to describe the process of realization or mental performance of the recipient.
In this case, the term becomes synonymous with the individual reading or viewing process. Concepts and their Study Performativity I: Nevertheless, the intensity with which they are experienced may vary.
The spatial proximity between performance and audience as well as the possible manipulation of light and sound bear on this experience.This chapter proposes a productive merger of old and new methodological approaches: the anthropology of theater and performance with the observant participation of performative ethnography.
A page for describing Characters: Monster High. This is the main page, or the page for characters not introduced in specials. For the ones that were, click . Performance of a speech act or set of speech acts can commit an agent to a distinct content, and do so relative to some force.
If P and Q jointly imply R, then my asserting both P and Q commits me to R. For more course tutorials visit Response Poetry and Performance ENG Week 3 Final Paper Rough Draft ENG Week 4 Dq 1 The Dramatic Form and Riders to the Sea ENG Week 4 Dq 2 Macbeth as Tragedy ENG Week 4 Reading Response to a Poem ENG Week 5 Dq 1 Comparing and Contrasting Literary Forms ENG Week 5 Dq 2 Performance in.
Drama Queens: Performance, Gender, and Power in Spenser and Marlowe by investigates the sovereign’s performative, gendered persona as reflected in the allegorical envisioning of Edmund Spenser, and challenged by the popular, politically charged drama of Marlowe’s plays function as direct counter-genre to those of Spenser's female.
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